Solar panels are typically comprised of a grouping of solar cells that are wired together and encapsulated by a glass casing that protects the equipment against the elements. When sunlight hits a cell, the photons within the sunlight knock electrons free from the semiconducting material. This starts the flow of electricity. Then, conductive plates made of metal on the sides of the cells gather the electrons and transfer them through wires. At this point, these electrons can flow just like direct current (DC). This is known as the photovoltaic effect. The more solar cells and larger the solar panel array is, the more electricity can be generated.
Next, a series of cabling infrastructure is necessary to actually bring the raw electricity from the sun to the inverters; the Inverters convert the energy from the sun which is DC (direct current), to usable electricity otherwise known as AC (alternating current) electricity. Each panel receives its own individual inverter so that if it becomes faulty, it will only affect said panel.
Cabling networks can vary, but typically are designed to be UV and weather resistant and capable of dealing with extreme fluctuations in temperature (both heat and cold), since one common factor for these system is that they’re used outdoors. To achieve this, most solar cables use plastic that are cross-linked using electron beams. This protects against the weather elements, including the sun’s radiation and humidity.
After the inverters have converted the energy from the sun, the solar energy travels to your Bi-directional meter. Traditionally, meters only count what you consume from the grid. But by going solar, you will no longer be consuming from your local utility as much if at all. Your meter will now begin to count any overproduction your system may produce and immediately sell it to your utility company. This process is otherwise known as net metering.
Now that your energy has been counted through your meter, it is dispersed throughout your home through its switch panel / electrical system for use. Therefore, it does not require changes inside the house.
After converting the energy into usable electricity, the battery storage system will be charged for later use or during a blackout.
You’re still connected to the utility grid. This ensures you can always draw power whenever your family is using more electricity than your solar system is producing. During the night you consume electricity from the power grid but you get credited for what you exported.